|Used For:||Change Management|
The Change Management Iceberg deals with the both the apparent and unseen barriers to change in an organization. It was developed by Wilfried Krüger and attempts to force management to look at the hidden challenges required to implement change.
The Change Management Iceberg is best implemented by leaders who accept that the most obvious barriers to change such as cost, quality and time are only the tip of the iceberg and stronger, more influential barriers lie beneath.
The basis of change management theory lies in the fact that most managers tend to only focus on the apparent barriers such as cost, quality and time instead of giving attention to more powerful issues such as perception, beliefs, power and politics. The theory also derives types of implementation based on the kind of change to occur and the strategy which is to be applied.
Another dimension to this theory is the people involved in the change and to what level they may promote or oppose it. Thus, Krüger believed that the foundation of change is directly related to management of perception, beliefs, power and politics. By understanding how all these link together to create barriers leaders will be able to better implement the change they wish to bring about.
Basic Principles of the Change Management Iceberg
To overcome the barriers presented by the Change Management Iceberg there are three types of management types which must be implemented. These are:
- Issue Management: The top of the iceberg which includes cost, quality and time are factors of Issue Management.
- Management of Perceptions and Beliefs: Understanding both the outward and hidden perceptions and beliefs of people must be considered to overcome change barriers.
- Power and Politics Management: For those who are involved in the change and need slight convincing, power and politics can play a valuable role.
The types of management which must be implemented are based on:
- The Kind of Change: Changes which affect ‘Hard Things’ are comparatively superficial, such as information system and processes. Change which affects “SoftThings” go deeper in the organization, such as values and mindsets.
- The Applied Change Strategy: Strategies may be revolutionary and dramatic such as business process reengineering or evolutionary and incremental such as in Kaizen.
Krüger categorized the kinds of people who effect the barriers for change as:
- Promoters have a positive attitude towards change and expect to gain benefits from it and will thus support it.
- Potential Promoters have a positive attitude towards the change but are not entirely convinced of its benefits; they can be converted to Promoters by management of power and politics.
- Hidden Opponents may seem to support change but internally have a negative attitude towards it. Management of perceptions and beliefs along with issue management can be used to change their outlook of change.
- Opponents have a negative attitude and behaviour towards change. Management of perception and beliefs must be used to change their attitude as much as possible.
Other Readers Also Read:
- Bases of Social Power
- Business Process Reengineering
- Change Model Beckhard
- Changing Organization Cultures
- Change Phases
- Core Group
- Dimensions of Change
- Force Field Analysis
- History of VBM
- Levels of Culture
- Planned Behavior
- Seven Habits of Effective Leaders